Jan 26, 2022  
2021-2022 Course Catalog 
2021-2022 Course Catalog
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BIO 250 - Cell & Molec Bio-Nucleic Acids

Credits: 5
Lecture Hours: 2
Lab Hours: 6
Practicum Hours: 0
Work Experience: 0
Course Type: Open
This course is designed to provide training in techniques related to nucleic acids and is a requirement for biotechnology majors. Topics will include DNA and RNA structure, function and regulation. Strategies and tools used in genetic engineering will also be included. The lab component of the course will include lab safety, media preparation, cell culture techniques, solution preparation and other basic lab skills. Students will get hands-on training in the isolation, characterization and manipulation of nucleic acids, as well as PCR and Southern blotting.
Prerequisite: BIO 112  and BIO 146  
Prerequisite OR Corequisite: BIO 146  
  1. Comply with safety and health rules.
    1. Demonstrate appropriate safety procedures in the laboratory.
    2. Locate safety equipment in the laboratory.
    3. Adhere to procedures governing handling and disposal of biological and hazardous materials.
  2. Demonstrate proper use and care of laboratory equipment.
    1. Maintain all equipment according to instructions.
    2. Describe proper procedures for using, cleaning and storing all laboratory equipment and supplies.
    3. Adhere to good laboratory practices.
    4. Document use, care and calibration of equipment when appropriate.
  3. Demonstrate proficiency in basic math skills.
    1. Express numbers in scientific notation.
    2. Calculate using numbers in scientific notation.
    3. Calculate common logarithms, natural logarithms and antilogarithms.
    4. Convert measurement from English to metric and from one metric unit to another.
  4. Measure mass and volume accurately.
    1. Describe proper technique for measuring mass using a top loading and an analytical balance
    2. Select the appropriate measuring device for volume measurements.
    3. Demonstrate the proper use of a variety of volume measurement tools and instruments.
  5. Contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure and function.
    1. Discuss cell structure and function.
    2. Identify cell structures and organelles.
    3. Summarize the purposes of various cell structures and organelles.
    4. List steps involved in binary fission, mitosis and meiosis.
    5. Explain the differences among binary fission, mitosis and meiosis.
    6. List the steps of oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis.
    7. Contrast oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis.
    8. Discuss the fermentation process and products of fermentation.
  6. Demonstrate aseptic skills.
    1. Inoculate liquid and solid culture media from stock bacterial cultures.
    2. Maintain a pure bacterial culture.
    3. Culture a plant from a variety of tissues.
    4. Prepare and dispense culture media.
    5. Safely operate an autoclave.
  7. Generate a standard curve.
    1. Perform a series of dilutions from a stock with a known concentration.
    2. Measure absorbance of dilutions through the proper use of a spectrophotometer.
    3. Graph measurements accurately.
    4. Derive a linear equation from the graph.
    5. Explain the principles of Beer’s Law.
  8. Summarize gene structure and function, and the genetic code.
    1. Explain DNA structure.
    2. Discuss DNA denaturation and renaturation.
    3. Provide a review of DNA replication, transcription and translation.
    4. Illustrate gene regulation using specific examples.
    5. Relate the connection between genes and genetic variations.
  9. Prepare laboratory solutions and buffers.
    1. Perform calculations to prepare a variety of solution concentration types.
    2. Perform measurements of mass and volume accurately to make a solution.
    3. Calibrate a pH meter.
    4. Adjust the pH of a solution by titration.
    5. Define pH.
    6. Store solutions in a proper manner.
  10. Isolate nucleic acids.
    1. Isolate DNA from different cell types.
    2. Isolate genomic DNA and plasmid DNA.
    3. Explain the steps involved in DNA isolation techniques.
    4. Isolate total RNA and/or mRNA from cells.
    5. Store DNA and RNA samples appropriately.
  11. Characterize DNA and RNA.
    1. Determine molecular weight using electrophoresis.
    2. Determine concentration and purity using UV analysis.
    3. Digest DNA using restriction endonucleases
    4. Map DNA according to restriction analysis.
    5. Define DNA fingerprinting and restriction fragment length polymorphism.
    6. List a DNA base sequence from a gel made using the Sanner method.
  12. Explain a basic method for gene cloning.
    1. Explain what a vector is and why it is important.
    2. Describe the ligation of target DNA with vector DNA.
    3. Transform bacteria using recombinant DNA.
    4. Screen transformed bacteria for the presence of the vector.
    5. Screen tranformants for the presence of the target DNA.
  13. Summarize the polymerase chain reaction.
    1. Explain the principles of PCR.
    2. Perform PCR.
    3. Explain the benefits and problems associated with PCR.
    4. Discuss current PCR applications.
  14. Discuss the benefits of genetic engineering and cloning in agriculture.
    1. Describe how plants and animals can be engineered.
    2. List how mankind benefits from plant and animal engineering.
    3. Discuss the social, legal, consumer and ethical issues surrounding genetic engineering and cloning.
  15. Summarize the applications of biotechnology to human therapeutics.
    1. Discuss gene therapy.
    2. Explain genetic diagnostic techniques.
    3. Discuss laboratory techniques used in human reproduction.
    4. Discuss the social, legal and ethical issues surrounding human therapeutics.
  16. Utilize public domain databases fro data mining.

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