Nov 28, 2021  
2021-2022 Course Catalog 
2021-2022 Course Catalog
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BIO 146 - Genetics

Credits: 3
Lecture Hours: 3
Lab Hours: 0
Practicum Hours: 0
Work Experience: 0
Course Type: Open
An introductory genetics course for Biology and Biotechnology majors. Topics covered include: introduction to the principles of transmission genetics in plants and animals, DNA and chromosome structure, replication and gene expression, molecular genetics found in plants, animals, bacteria and viruses. Basic quantitative and population genetics.
Prerequisite: BIO 112  or BIO 186  
  1. Describe the science of heredity and genetic manipulation
    1. Discuss the historical aspects of genetics, from Hippocrates and Aristotle to Darwin
    2. Explain basic concepts of genetics
    3. Discuss investigative methods used in genetics and explain the importance and extent of their application
  2. Summarize the process of cell division, and chromosome structure and function.
    1. Describe the process of meiosis and mitosis
    2. Distinguish between meiosis and mitosis
    3. Review the importance of the processes of meiosis and mitosis.
  3. Discuss the history and significance of Mendel’s work in genetics
    1. Explain monohybrid and dihybrid crosses
    2. Analyze monohybrid and dihybrid crosses using test crosses.
    3. Demonstrate the use of Punnett Squares in the analysis of
    4. Summarize Mendel’s principles of segregation and independent assortment. monohybrid and dihybrid crosses and test crosses
    5. Probability and Genetic Events
    6. Interpret genetic data using Chi-square analysis
    7. Human Pedigrees
  4. Summarize factors known to modify simple Mendelian Ratios
    1. Identify and use appropriate symbols for alleles
    2. Discuss multiple alleles, incomplete dominance, codominance, and sex-linked inheritance
  5. Discuss linkage vs. independent assortment and chromosome mapping.
    1. Distinguish between incomplete and complete linkage
    2. Explain the process and importance of crossing over
    3. Review principles of segregation and independent assortment
    4. Explain the three criteria for a successful mapping cross
    5. Identify the gene sequence in a mapping cross
    6. Diagram a mapping problem
    7. Identify the gene sequence from a genetic map
  6. Summarize the characteristics and function of genetic material
    1. Discuss the history of evidence that indicated DNA was responsible for transofrmation of bacteria and that DNA was also the genetic material in eucaryotes.
    2. Explain the role of bacteriophages in transfection
    3. Review DNA structure, including the Watson-Crick model
    4. Review the three classes of RNA and their functions
    5. Examine the principles of molecular hybridization and
  7. Describe the process of DNA replication and synthesis reassociation kinetics.
    1. Explain the roles of DNA polymerase I, II and III
    2. Discuss continuous and discontinuous DNA synthesis
    3. Compare procaryotic vs. eucaryotic DNA synthesis
  8. Summarize the processes of DNA transcription and translation
    1. Review the genetic code.
    2. Describe the initial studies that enabled scientists to decipher the genetic code.
    3. Explain codons and anticodons
    4. Discuss degeneracy and wobble in the genetic code.
    5. Summarize universality of the genetic code
    6. Compare the processes of transcription and translation in
  9. Discuss protein structure and function procaryotes vs. eucaryotes.
    1. Review the one gene - one enzyme and one gene - one protein hypotheses and discuss their historical importance
    2. Explain protein structure
    3. Describe protein function
  10. Discuss genetic variation, its’ origin and importance
    1. Classify mutations
    2. Discuss methods for detecting mutations in bacteria, fungi,
    3. Describe the molecular basis for genetic mutations Drosophila, and in humans.
    4. Explain the use of the Ames Test in detection of mutagens.
    5. Review the role of radiation in DNA damage and repair.
    6. Discuss the role of transposons in genetic mutation/variation
  11. Compare DNA organization in viruses, bacteria, mitochondria, chloroplasts and eucaryotic nuclei
    1. Review the organization and function of mitochondrial DNA.
    2. Review the organization and function of chloroplast DNA.
    3. Describe the organization of DNA in eucaryotic chromatin
    4. Relate the importance of chromosome banding techniques
    5. Review eucaryotic genome structure
    6. Review structure of viral and bacterial chromosomes
  12. Explain the genetics of bacteria and bacteriophages
    1. Review general principles of bacterial growth and mutation
    2. Discuss conjugation in bacteria.
    3. Discuss the role of plasmids in bacterial mutations and
    4. Explain transposons, insertion sequences and inverted repeats Recombinant DNA research.
    5. Describe bacterial transformation
    6. Discuss the role of bacteriophages in transformation
    7. Explain the nature and importance of transduction
    8. Discuss reverse transcriptase and retroviruses, including their role in oncogenesis
    9. Review AIDS and discuss HIV as a subgroup of retroviruses
  13. Summarize recombinant DNA technology
    1. Explain the role of restriction enzymes
    2. Discuss the types of vectors and how they are used
    3. Relate the construction and importance of genomic, chromosome-specific and cDNA libraries
    4. Explain the selection of recombinant clones
    5. Describe PCR Analysis and explain its’ importance
    6. Explain the characterization of cloned DNA sequences using restriction mapping, nucleic acid blotting and DNA sequencing
    7. Discuss the importance of various applications of recombinant DNA technology, including gene mapping, diagnostics, DNA fingerprinting, gene therapy and protein production
    8. Discuss the scientific, economic, social and ethical aspects of the Human Genome Project and of recombinant DNA technology in general
  14. Summarize the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression in procaryotes and eucaryotes
    1. Distinguish between models for positive and negative control of gene expression
    2. Explain the regulation of lactose metabolism in E. coli
    3. Explain repressible genes and attenuation
    4. Distinguish between the lysogenic and lytic pathways used by
    5. Review regulation of transcription in eucaryotes bacteriophage Lambda in E.coli
    6. Discuss posttranscriptional regulation in eucaryotes
  15. Explain the function and regulation of the various components of the immune system.
    1. Discuss antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immunity, and the concept of immunological memory
    2. Review theories of antibody formation
    3. Relate organization and recombination of immunoglobulin genes to antibody diversity
    4. Demonstrate understanding of production of monoclonal antibodies and their applications
    5. Discuss the ABO blood group system and Rh compatibility
    6. Explain histocompatibility antigens
    7. Discuss the role of HLA antigens and MHC genes in governing the success of tissue and organ transplantation
    8. Discuss disorders of the immune system, including AIDS and
  16. Population Genetics autoimmune diseases.
    1. Populations, Gene Pools, and Allele Frequencies
    2. The Hardy-Weinberg Law
    3. Factors that Alter Allele Frequencies

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