Jan 26, 2022  
2021-2022 Course Catalog 
2021-2022 Course Catalog
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BIO 112 - General Biology I

Credits: 4
Lecture Hours: 3
Lab Hours: 2
Practicum Hours: 0
Work Experience: 0
Course Type: Core
First semester of Biology for majors. Topics covered include chemistry of life, cells, bioenergetics, genetics, evolution, and viruses
Prerequisite: H.S. Biology & H.S. Chemistry or equivalent
  1. Demonstrate competent and safe laboratory skills
    1. Locate safety equipment in the laboratory
    2. Model safe behavioral practices when in the laboratory
    3. Use laboratory equipment correctly
    4. Demonstrate competence in the use of microscopes         
  2. Examine different methods of scientific investigation, including The Scientific Method
    1. Distinguish between hypotheses and theories
    2. Gain exposure to primary scientific literature
    3. Engage in scientific writing
  3. Examine the chemistry of life
    1. Define atoms, molecules, chemical bonds, and chemical reactions
    2. Describe the unique physical and chemical characteristics of water that support life
    3. Identify structural characteristics of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids and explain their modes of synthesis and degradation    
    4. Investigate features of biological macromolecules in the laboratory    
  4. Compare and contrast key structural and functional properties of living cells
    1. Identify the structural and functional similarities and differences that exist between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    2. Correlate the structure of each eukaryotic cell component to its biological function
    3. Understand the pros and cons of using compound light microscopes, dissecting microscopes and electron microscopes for visualizing living cells                     
  5. Correlate biological membrane structure with membrane function
    1. Understand how compositional and organizational aspects of membrane structure underlie cellular functions
    2. Compare and contrast passive and active modes of membrane transport in terms of energetic requirements and existing gradients of concentration or electrical potential
  6. Examine metabolism 
    1. Distinguish between endergonic and exergonic reactions and anabolism and catabolism
    2. Describe the structure of ATP and how it powers the work of cells
    3. Relate energy of activation to enzyme activity 
    4. Describe enzyme structure/function and its regulation by negative feedback mechanisms
    5. Investigate enzymes in the lab
  7. Examine cellular respiration
    1. Describe production of chemical energy in cells        
    2. Summarize chemical reactions of aerobic and anaerobic respiration of glucose
    3. Distinguish between oxidation and reduction
    4. Explain the importance of electron carriers in cellular respiration
    5. Specify the cellular sites of the processes of cellular respiration
    6. Distinguish types of phosphorylation
    7. Track and explain ATP production through each stage of cellular respiration
    8. Explain the necessity of oxygen for cellular respiration
    9. Investigate respiration in the laboratory
  8. Analyze photosynthesis
    1. Describe photosynthetic events and structures
    2. Distinguish between autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition
    3. Relate chloroplast structure to function
    4. Summarize chemical reactions of photosynthesis
    5. Describe features of light
    6. Explain how light absorption leads to electron flow through photosystems I and II
    7. Describe the roles of ATP and NADPH in the Calvin cycle
    8. Describe adaptations for minimizing water loss
    9. Investigate photosynthesis in the laboratory       
  9. Examine cellular reproduction
    1. Distinguish between sexual and asexual cellular reproduction
    2. Describe chromosomes and their structural forms
    3. Describe the bacterial chromosome and binary fission
    4. Summarize cell chromosome number changes in the sexual life cycles
    5. Outline the steps and control of the cell cycle
    6. Identify characteristics and events of the phases of mitosis
    7. Describe structures and events required for chromosomal movement in mitosis
    8. Compare cytokinesis of plant and animal cells
    9. Outline the steps of meiosis
    10. Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis
    11. Explain how genetic variation in populations allows for natural selection
    12. Identify stages of mitosis and meiosis in the laboratory
  10. Interpret genetics
    1. Summarize Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment
    2. Use Punnett squares and laws of probability to predict genotype and phenotype ratios
    3. Differentiate between Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance patterns
    4. Explain how linkage may affect genotype and phenotype ratios
    5. Evaluate pedigrees to determine patterns of inheritance
    6. Explore inheritance in the lab
  11. Evaluate molecular genetics
    1. Describe the history of the discovery of DNA
    2. Describe the structure and function of DNA
    3. Outline the steps of DNA replication
    4. Explain the one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis
    5. Differentiate between RNA and DNA structure and function
    6. Compare transcription and translation mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    7. Use the universal genetic code to work transcription and translation problems
    8. Explain eukaryotic mRNA processing
    9. Differentiate between types of mutations and their effects
    10. Investigate molecular genetics in the laboratory
  12. Examine viruses
    1. Summarize virus structure and function
    2. Describe processes of viral genome replication
    3. Discuss virus reproduction and transmission         
  13. Investigate genome organization and expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    1. Compare genomic organization in eukaryotes and prokaryotes
    2. Describe genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression
    3. Understand the role of selective gene expression in regulating development
    4. Explain how operons function in metabolic control        
  14. Examine the processes, applications, and ethics of biotechnology
    1. Describe functions and uses of restriction enzymes
    2. Describe various research tools used in biotechnology
    3. Cite specific advances that have been achieved through biotechnology
    4. Consider safety and ethical aspects of recombinant DNA research
    5. Investigate biotechnology in the laboratory
  15. Analyze the origins and evolution of life
    1. Explain the concept of evolution as a central theme of biology
    2. Trace the historical development of the theory of natural selection, including the contributions of Charles Darwin and other scientists
    3. Describe the evidence for the evolution of life
    4. Use the geologic timescale to sequence major events (extinctions, adaptive radiations) in the evolution of life
    5. Recognize the role of the population as the unit of evolution  
    6. Distinguish between artificial and natural selection
    7. Contrast macroevolution and microevolution           
    8. Describe other modes of evolution, such as genetic drift and gene flow
    9. Investigate evolution in the laboratory
  16. Classify life
    1. Use the phylogenetic approach to classification
    2. Contrast the biological species concept with other definitions of species
    3. Identify prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive isolation mechanisms that underlie allopatric and sympatric speciation
    4. Distinguish homologous and analogous structures, and provide examples of each
    5. Utilize cladistics to discuss monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic groupings
    6. Summarize how molecular clocks are utilized

Competencies Revised Date: 2019

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