May 20, 2024  
2021-2022 Course Catalog 
2021-2022 Course Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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BIO 168 - Anatomy & Physiology I

Credits: 4
Lecture Hours: 3
Lab Hours: 2
Practicum Hours: 0
Work Experience: 0
Course Type: Core
Anatomy & Physiology I covers the structure and function of the human body at the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, and organ system levels. Coverage includes the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Lecture and lab must be taken concurrently.  
Prerequisite: A grade of “C” or better in BIO 156   or a grade of “C” or better in BIO 104  or a grade of “C” or better in BIO 112  or a “C” or better in high school Anatomy within the last five years

  1. Summarize the basic structures and functions of the human body
    1. List in order, from simplest to most complex, the levels of structural organization
    2. Describe the locations of the major body cavities and list the organs located within each cavity
    3. Name and label the membranes associated with the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
    4. List the 11 organ systems and identify the organs functions associated with each system
    5. Describe the location of body structures using appropriate anatomical terminology
    6. Explain the necessary life functions and the required elements for maintaining life
    7. State the importance of regulating homeostasis in the body and give examples of the various methods for maintaining homeostasis
  2. Determine how chemical reactions underlie physiological processes 
    1. Explain how molecular and structural formulas are used to symbolize the composition of molecules
    2. Describe the major types of chemical reactions and comment on their relevance in physiological processes
    3. Define the term pH and state the values for acidic, neutral, and alkaline solutions
    4. Define metabolism and provide examples of anabolic and catabolic reactions.
    5. Describe the building blocks, general structures, and biological functions of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
    6. Explain the role of cellular respiration in the cell and the release of energy from ATP to facilitate work 
  3. Determine how the components of a cell contribute to cellular functions
    1. Describe the characteristics of a generalized cell and note the diversity of cell types in the human body
    2. Explain how the structure of the plasma membrane relates to its functions
    3. Explain the processes of membrane transport and indicate how the cell uses these processes to regulate exchanges between the cell and its environment
    4. Describe the structure and function of the various cellular organelles
    5. Outline the structure and functions of the nucleus
    6. Illustrate the stages of the cell cycle and mitosis
    7. Illustrate a DNA molecule and explain how genetic information (genes) codes for proteins
    8. Describe the steps of DNA replication
    9. Explain protein synthesis in terms of transcription and translation 
  4. Compare and contrast the tissues of the body in terms of their structures, functions, and locations 
    1. Describe the microscopic anatomy, location, and function of various epithelial tissue types
    2. Describe different types of connective tissue based on their structural characteristics, functions, and locations in the body 
    3. Describe different types of muscle tissue based on structural characteristics, functions, and locations in the body
    4. Describe neurons and glial cells with respect to cell structure and function 
  5. Determine how the structures of the integumentary system form the external body covering and protect deeper tissues 
    1. Describe the general composition and functions of the integumentary system
    2. Identify and describe the layers of the epidermis
    3. Explain how each of the epidermal layers and cell types contribute to the function of the epidermis
    4. Identify and describe the dermis and its layers
    5. Describe how each layer of the dermis and the various accessory structures of the integumentary system contribute to homeostasis 
  6. Examine how the skeletal system protects body organs and provides a framework for muscles to produce movement 
    1. List and describe the cellular and extracellular components of bone tissue
    2. Classify bones based on shape and describe the structures of a long bone
    3. Describe the physiology of bone formation, repair, and remodeling
    4. Identify individual bones, their locations in the body, and the major bone markings associated with each bone
    5. Classify joints structurally and functionally
    6. Describe the anatomical features of synovial joints and the kinds of movement each joint allows 
    7. Identify a location in the body for each of the six types of synovial joints 
  7. Establish how the muscular system achieves body movement 
    1. Describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of skeletal muscle
    2. Describe the sequence of events involved in contraction of a skeletal muscle fiber, including events at the neuromuscular junction, excitation-contraction coupling, and cross-bridge cycling
    3. Explain how skeletal muscle fibers and muscles produce varying amounts of tension
    4. Identify the location and actions of major skeletal muscles
    5. Describe the classes of levers in terms of the relative position of the fulcrum, effort, and load, and name examples of each in the human body 
  8. Determine how nervous tissue provides a rapid means of regulating body functions through electrical activities 
    1. Describe the general organization and anatomy of the nervous system
    2. Describe the components of a typical neuron and indicate which parts receive input signals and which parts transmit output signals
    3. State the location, structure, and function of each type of neuroglial cell
    4. Explain the physiological basis of the resting membrane potential
    5. Summarize graded potentials and action potentials in terms of their overall function and location in the neuron
    6. Explain how action potentials propagate along an axon and factors that affect conduction velocity
    7. Describe the events of synaptic transmission 
  9. Distinguish the structures and functions of the central and peripheral nervous systems 
    1. Describe the structural and functional organization of the brain and spinal cord
    2. Name the cranial nerves and describe their major functions
    3. Identify the structure of a spinal nerve and describe the major nerve plexuses
    4. Describe the structural and functional components of a reflex arc
    5. Describe the autonomic nervous system and summarize the major effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
  10. Compare and contrast the general and special senses 
    1. Classify general sensory receptors by stimulus detected, body location, and structure
    2. Identify and describe the microscopic and gross anatomy of the eye
    3. Trace the pathway of light through the eye and explain how light is focused for distant and close vision
    4. Trace the signal pathway from the photoreceptors of the retina to the brain
    5. Describe the components of the chemical senses, smell and taste
    6. Identify and describe the gross anatomy of the ear
    7. Explain how structures of the ear function in hearing and balance 
  11. Examine concepts of anatomy and physiology through lab-based learning 
    1. Locate gross anatomical structures through dissection of mammalian organs
    2. Use a variety of laboratory methods to examine structures and functions of the human body

Competencies Revised Date: 2020

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