Sep 25, 2021  
2021-2022 Course Catalog 
    
2021-2022 Course Catalog
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BIO 173 - Anatomy & Physiology II

Credits: 4
Lecture Hours: 3
Lab Hours: 2
Practicum Hours: 0
Work Experience: 0
Course Type: Core
Anatomy and Physiology II is a continuation of Anatomy & Physiology I. The following organ systems are covered: the endocrine system, blood and the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system and immunity, the respiratory system, the urinary system, the digestive system including nutrition and the reproductive system. Other topics include the body’s balance of water; electrolytes and acids and bases and an introduction to human growth and development. Lecture and lab must be taken concurrently.
Prerequisite: A grade of “C” or better in BIO 168  Anatomy & Physiology I
Competencies
  1. Understand the basic functions of the endocrine system.
    1. Name and describe the locations of the major endocrine glands of the body, and list the hormones they secrete
    2. Describe the general functions of the hormones secreted by the endocrine glands.
    3. Describe how hormones can be classified according to their chemical composition, and how steroid and nonsteroid hormones produce effects on target cells
    4. Discuss how negative feedback mechanisms control hormonal secretions.
    5. Explain how the nervous system controls hormonal secretions
  2. Describe the structures and functions of blood
    1. Describe the composition and characteristics of blood
    2. List the functions of blood
    3. Describe the structure, function, and production of erythrocytes
    4. List the classes, describe the structure, and explain the functions of leukocytes.
    5. Describe the structure and function of platelets
    6. Understand the process of homeostasis
    7. Describe how the body prevents unwanted blood clotting
    8. Describe the ABO and Rh blood groups and understand their role in transfusions
  3. Describe the structures of the cardiovascular system and how understand how they function
    1. Describe the shape, location, orientation, coverings, layers, chambers, and valves of the heart
    2. Trace the pathway of blood through the heart
    3. Name the major branches of coronary circulation
    4. Describe the structural and functional properties of cardiac muscle.
    5. Explain the events of the cardiac cycle and conduction system.
    6. Draw and explain an ECG
    7. Discuss the factors that regulate cardiac activity
  4. Describe the structure and function of the blood vessels
    1. Compare and contrast the structure of veins and arteries
    2. Compare and contrast the structure of the various types of arteries.
    3. Describe the structure, function, and regulation of a capillary bed.
    4. Explain the relationships between blood flow, blood pressure and resistance.
    5. Explain the factors that effect blood pressure and describe how the body regulates blood pressure
    6. Describe the regulation of blood flow
    7. Explain the factors involved in capillary dynamics
    8. Locate the major veins and arteries in the body
    9. Describe the structure and function of the hepatic portal system
  5. Describe the structure and function of the lymphatic system and understand it role in immunity
    1. Describe the structure, distribution, and functions of lymphatic vessels.
    2. Describe the source of lymph and the mechanisms of lymph transport
    3. Describe the structure of the major lymph organs and lymph nodes
    4. Explain the innate defenses ? surface and internal ? of the body
    5. Describe the process of inflammation.
    6. Understand the antigen-antibody system
    7. Compare and contrast the structure and function of B and T lymphocytes.
    8. Describe the role of phagocytic cells
    9. Describe humoral immunity and compare and contrast active and passive humoral immunity
    10. Explain the process of the cell-mediated response
  6. Describe the structure of the respiratory system and how it functions in maintaining life.
    1. Name and describe the locations of the organs of the respiratory system.
    2. Describe the function of each organ of the respiratory system
    3. Explain how the pattern of breathing is established and maintained.
    4. Name and define each of the respiratory air volumes and capacities.
    5. Locate the respiratory center and explain how it controls breathing
    6. Explain how oxygen and carbon dioxide are absorbed and transported in the blood
    7. Explain why cells require oxygen
  7. Explain the structure and functions of the urinary system
    1. Name the organs of the urinary system and list their general functions.
    2. Describe the location and structure of the kidneys
    3. Describe a nephron and explain the functions of its major parts
    4. Explain how glomerular filtrate is produced and how it is modified in the process of urine formation.
    5. Describe the structure of the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
    6. Explain how micturition is controlled
    7. Describe how the body maintains a balance of water, electrolytes, acids, and bases
  8. Understand the structures and functions of the digestive system
    1. Name and describe the locations of the organs of the digestive system and their major parts
    2. Describe the general functions of each digestive organ
    3. List the enzymes the various digestive organs and glands secrete and describe the function of each
    4. Explain how movement of material through the alimentary canal is controlled.
    5. Explain how the products of digestion are absorbed
    6. List the major sources of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, and describe how these substances are utilized by cells
    7. Distinguish between vitamins and minerals and describe their functions in the body
  9. Describe the structure and functions of the male and female reproductive systems.
    1. Name the parts of the reproductive systems and describe the functions of each part.
    2. Outline the processes of spermatogenesis and oogenesis, and explain their significance
    3. Explain the role of hormones in controlling the functions of these systems.
    4. Describe the major events that occur during a menstrual cycle
    5. Discuss the hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy
    6. Describe the birth process and explain the role of hormones in this process.
  10. Understand the general sequence of events during prenatal development.
    1. Describe the major events that occur during the period of cleavage.
    2. Explain how the primary germ layers originate and list the structures produced by each layer
    3. Describe the formation and function of the placenta
    4. Describe the major events that occur during the fetal stage of development.
    5. Trace the general path of blood through the fetal circulatory system, and describe the major circulatory and physiological adjustments that occur in the newborn.



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