May 28, 2024  
2023-2024 Course Catalog 
2023-2024 Course Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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BIO 157 - Human Biology

Credits: 4
Lecture Hours: 3
Lab Hours: 2
Practicum Hours: 0
Work Experience: 0
Course Type: Core
Human Biology is an introductory course that studies the structure and function of the human body and its chemistry and organization. Students will also study the basics of genetics, evolution, and the origins of life. Labs will reinforce course content. This course is not equivalent to or intended to replace Bio 112 & 113 or Bio 168 & 173.

  1. Prioritize competent and safe practices in the laboratory 
    1. Identify safety equipment in the laboratory 
    2. Use safe behavioral practices when in the laboratory
    3. Use laboratory equipment correctly
    4. Demonstrate competence in the use of microscopes
    5. Use the metric system
  2. Interpret how the scientific process is used to investigate scientific questions
    1. List the stages of the scientific process
    2. Explain the difference between a hypothesis and a theory
  3. Evaluate the levels of organization in the human body
    1. List the levels of body organization from chemical to organismal level
    2. Explain the interactions among the levels of organization
    3. Discuss the characteristics of life with special emphasis on the principle of homeostasis and feedback mechanisms
  4. Assess the chemistry of living things
    1. Define the terms atom, element, molecule, and compound
    2. Distinguish between covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonds
    3. Describe the biological characteristics of water
    4. Discuss the differences between acids, bases, and salts and the importance of the pH scale
    5. Describe the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
  5. Evaluate the structure and function of cells, tissues, and the integument
    1. Describe the anatomy of a typical human cell in detail
    2. Explain the structure and function of the cell’s plasma membrane
    3. Discuss active and passive movement of materials across the plasma membrane
    4. Describe the functions of organelles in a typical human cell
    5. List the four basic tissue types found in the human body with regard to important characteristics, functions, and locations of each type
    6. Describe the skin as an organ system in the human body
    7. Describe the two basic layers of the skin and accessory structures
    8. List the functions of the integument
  6. Evaluate the components and functions of the musculoskeletal systems 
    1. Describe the functions of the skeletal system
    2. Identify the microscopic components of bone tissue
    3. Discuss bone metabolism and the action of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes
    4. List functional classifications of joints with specific examples
    5. Compare types of movement at joints, including flexion and extension
    6. Identify major bones of the axial and appendicular skeleton
    7. Differentiate between the three types of muscular tissues with regard to the structure, function, and location of each
    8. Describe the process of muscular contraction and the sliding filament theory
    9. Identify major muscles of the body
    10. Describe the general anatomy of muscles, including origin and insertion
  7. Evaluate the components and functions of the nervous and endocrine systems
    1. Outline the organization of the central and peripheral nervous systems and the division of functions
    2. Discuss the components and functions of neurons and neuroglial cells
    3. Describe nerve impulses and reflex arcs
    4. Identify major structures of the nervous system and their functions
    5. Identify the structures and functions of the eye, ear, and other sensory structures
    6. Identify the major endocrine glands of the human body, their locations, secreted hormones, target organs, and major actions
  8. Evaluate the components and functions of the cardiovascular, lymphatic, and immune systems
    1.  Identify the components and functions the cardiovascular system
    2. Identify heart anatomy, including the valves, chambers, and intrinsic conduction system of the heart and describe the flow of blood through the heart
    3. Contrast systemic and pulmonary circulations
    4. Identify major blood vessels and explain the differences between arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, and capillaries
    5. Describe the major functions of blood and its formed elements
    6. Identify structures of the lymphatic system and their functions 
    7. Discuss the immune system including the structures and functions of the specific and nonspecific defenses
    8. Differentiate between natural and artificial immunity and between cellular and humoral immunity
  9. Evaluate the components and functions of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary systems
    1. Describe the physiologic functions of the respiratory system including ventilation, internal respiration, gas transport, and external respiration
    2. Identify the major structures of the respiratory system and their functions
    3. Explain the structures and factors that control respiration
    4. Identify the major structures of the digestive system and describe their functions and digestive processes
    5. Describe how carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are absorbed through the small intestine and utilized by the body
    6. Identify the components and functions of the urinary system
    7. Describe the structures and physiologic processes of the nephron and the associated hormones
  10. Evaluate the structures and functions of the reproductive systems and pre-natal development
    1. Identify the structures and functions of the male and female reproductive systems
    2. Explain connection between the pituitary gland hormones, sexual maturation, spermatogenesis and oogenesis
    3. Describe the functions of hormones with respect to the regulation of ovarian and uterine cycles in the female
    4. Outline the events of pregnancy, stages of development, and birth
    5. Evaluate the methods of birth control/contraceptive techniques
  11. Evaluate the concepts of human genetics and the principles governing the continuity of life
    1. Describe the events of mitosis and meiosis and list their phases in order
    2. Identify the patterns of inheritance of Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics
    3. Solve genetic problems for Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance
    4. Examine monohybrid and dihybrid genetics problems
    5. Distinguish between autosomal and X-linked inheritance
  12. Interpret the principles of evolution
    1. Give examples of evidence supporting the theory of evolution
    2. Discuss natural selection as a driving mechanism for evolution
    3. Discuss the evolution of living organisms from simple prokaryotes to complex eukaryotes
    4. Identify key characteristics and evolutionary relationships of primates, hominids and Homo sapiens representatives
  13. Reinforce concepts of human biology through lab-based learning
    1. Locate anatomical structures through microscopy and dissection
    2. Apply the functions of the human body to scientific investigations

Competencies Revised Date: AY2023

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