Nov 28, 2022
DHY 161 - Oral Radiology Credits: 3
Lecture Hours: 2
Lab Hours: 2
Practicum Hours: 0
Work Experience: 0
Course Type: Open
Lecture includes radiation physics; biological effects; radiation safety and protection; properties of x-ray film and digital receptors; techniques of exposing, processing, mounting and evaluating images; asepsis and legal and ethical responsibilities involved in performing radiographic procedures on dental patients of all ages and physical characteristics. Laboratory experiences are structured to enhance didactic competencies and to develop skills in exposing, processing, mounting, evaluating and interpreting radiographic images, as well as promoting clinical competence and professional demeanor.
Corequisite: DEA 256 and DEA 507 or DHY 114
- Discuss historic contributions associated with the discovery and growth of X-radiation.
- Summarize the importance of dental radiographs.
- List the uses of dental radiographs.
- Summarize the discovery of x-radiation.
- Recognize the pioneers in dental x-radiation and their contributions.
- List the highlights in the history of x-ray equipment, film, and techniques.
- Interpret the fundamental concepts of atomic and molecular structure.
- List the three states of matter and the properties of each.
- Identify the structure of the atom.
- Define molecule and discuss how molecules are formed.
- Describe the process of ionization.
- Discuss the nature of radiation.
- Indicate the various types of radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum.
- Describe the nature of electromagnetic wave forms.
- Define crest, wavelength and frequency.
- List the properties of x-rays.
- Recognize the components of the x-ray machine, their functions, and their controlling factors.
- Describe the main components of an x-ray tube and their functions.
- Identify the electric currents of an x-ray tube and their effect on the emitted radiation.
- Understand the types of x-rays that are produced.
- Explain interactions of x-radiation and matter
- Explain the characteristics of dentally used radiation and how these affect radiographic image production.
- List the three characteristics of a radiation beam.
- Describe how kilovoltage, milliamperage, time, and distance can alter an x-ray beam.
- Recall the Inverse Square Law.
- Examine Radiation Biology and the harmful effects of ionizing radiation on human tissues.
- Describe the mechanisms, theories, and sequence of radiation injury.
- Identify the factors that determine radiation injury.
- Discuss short-term and long-term effects as well as the somatic and genetic effects of radiation exposure.
- Recall the effects of radiation exposure on cells, tissues, and organs.
- Identify the relative sensitivity of a given tissue to x-radiation.
- Define the units of measurement used in radiation exposure.
- Describe sources of radiation exposure.
- Estimate risk exposure in dental radiography.
- Summarize the concepts associated with Radiation Protection.
- Practice all principles of radiation safety applicable to exposure of radiographs.
- State what ALARA stands for.
- Demonstrate the use of image receptors and accessories.
- Identify the various types and sizes of image receptors and positioning devices available for use in dental radiography.
- Describe the composition of a film packets and the use of each component material
- Define latent image formation
- Discuss the function and composition of grids.
- Describe proper receptor storage and protection.
- Examine categories of radiographic image characteristics and the factors that influence them.
- Differentiate between radiolucent and radiopaque areas on a radiographic image
- Describe a diagnostic dental radiograph.
- List two visual characteristics of a radiographic image and the factors that influence them.
- Describe a step-wedge.
- List three geometric characteristics of a radiographic image and the factors that influence them.
- Define focal spot, penumbra, resolution, target-film distance, and object film distance.
- Relate proper processing of x-ray film.
- List important features of a darkroom
- Identify darkroom equipment.
- List and indicate the purpose of chemicals used in creating radiographic images.
- Compare steps for proper manual and automatic processing of films
- Identify common darkroom errors on radiographs.
- Describe methods to prevent errors.
- Assess appearances of normal radiographic landmarks, artifacts, and shadows.
- Determine radiopaque and radiolucent substances.
- Identify restorative materials on the radiograph
- Describe variations in the radiographic appearance of normal landmarks and suggest reasons for such variations.
- Produce diagnostically useful images.
- Identify and assemble the parts of receptor holding devices.
- Explain the purpose of the various types of bitewing surveys.
- Compare the paralleling and bisecting techniques.
- Assemble properly the armamentarium required for the chosen exposure technique which minimizes patient discomfort and anxiety.
- Place and expose radiographs according to identified criteria.
- Identify film positioning errors.
- Discuss the importance of communication in the operator-patient relationship.
- Describe the influence of the operator’s attitude and appearance on patient treatment.
- Relate procedures indicated for special need’s patients.
- Recall answers to common questions concerning x-rays asked by patients.
- Employ a systematic approach in radiographic interpretation.
- Recognize and evaluate radiographic exposures which meet established criteria.
- Label images properly with the date, patient’s full name or identification number, and the operator’s name.
- Describe methods to improve or modify the procedure or final product if the identified criteria are not met.
- Relate methods of prevention or correction of previously identified exposure, handling and processing errors.
- Demonstrate proficiency in the fundamental use of digital radiography.
- Review advantages and disadvantages of digital imaging systems.
- Describe the two types or radiographic digital imaging
- Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of receptors.
- Describe and demonstrate infection control procedures that should be used with digital receptors.
- Discuss legal issues that surround the use of digital imaging technology
- Perform panoramic radiography and other extraoral radiographic techniques with instruction in interpretation and component parts as appropriate.
- Describe proper patient positioning, head alignment, and rationale for the extra oral radiographic exposures.
- Recall the rationale for choosing screened or non-screened receptors.
- Relate steps in loading, cleaning and caring for the cassettes and screens.
- Demonstrate steps in operation of the Orthoralix 8500 machine.
- Explain the differences between tomography, computed tomography, and cone-beam computed tomography, and describe their roles in oral health care.
- Evaluate radiographic manifestations of pathologic conditions of jaws including benign neoplasms and malignancies.
- Incorporate case history, clinical examination and any existing films.
- Use an appropriate viewing environment.
- Discriminate normal versus abnormal conditions.
- Assess developmental abnormalities and basic disease processes of teeth and supporting structures.
- Identify and classify dental caries on a radiograph.
- Recall factors that would affect caries interpretation and how they appear.
- Describe radiographic and clinical signs and symptoms of infections of periapical tissues.
- Discuss the importance of both clinical and radiographic examinations in the diagnosis of periodontal disease.
- Identify bone loss classifications and recognize their radiographic appearances.
- Determine if radiographic evidence is of diagnostic quality.
- List common dental anomalies and their distinctive clinical and radiographic features.
- Recognize radiographic features of regressive changes in the dentition.
- Utilize supplementary techniques and alternate imaging modalities for special needs patients.
- Use the exposure technique which minimizes patient discomfort and anxiety.
- Relate receptor and tube-head placement for disto-oblique exposure techniques.
- Recall methods used to localize an object in the oral cavity.
- Recognize appropriate use of film duplicating.
- List steps in film duplicating.
- Evaluate legal and ethical issues related to dental radiography.
- Explain quality assurance procedures.
- Assess patients’ radiographic needs prior to exposing any radiographs.
- Adhere to accepted guidelines for prescribing and exposing radiographs.
- Review all available radiographs of each patient for interpretation of presence or absence of disease.
- Record radiographic findings in the patient record.
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