Aug 19, 2019  
2018-2019 Course Catalog 
    
2018-2019 Course Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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BIO 168 - Anatomy & Physiology I

Credits: 4
Lecture Hours: 3
Lab Hours: 2
Practicum Hours: 0
Work Experience: 0
Course Type: Core
Anatomy & Physiology I covers the structure and function of the human body from the cellular level to organ systems. Topics at the cellular level include the fundamental basics of chemistry, cell structure and cellular metabolism, genetics and histology. The organ systems studied are the skin and integumentary system, the skeletal and muscular systems, the nervous system and the senses. Lecture and lab must be taken concurrently.
Prerequisite: A grade of “C” or better in BIO 156   or a grade of “C” or better in BIO 104  or a grade of “C” or better in BIO 112  or a “C” or better in high school Anatomy within the last five years
Competencies
  1. Describe the basic organization of the human body
    1. Explain what is meant by levels of organization
    2. Describe the locations of the major body cavities and list the organs locate within each cavity
    3. Name and locate the membranes associated with the thoracic and abdominal pelvic cavities
    4. Name the major organ systems and list the organs and functions associated with each
    5. Explain the functional characteristics of life and the required elements for maintaining life
    6. Understand the importance of regulating homeostasis in the body and identify the various methods for regulation of homeostasis
    7. Properly use the terms that describe relative positions, body sections, and body regions
  2. Explain the chemical basis of life. Describe the relationships between matter, atoms, and molecules and how atoms interact
    1. Explain how molecular and structural formulas are used to symbolize the composition of compounds.
    2. Describe the types of chemical reactions
    3. Discuss the concept of pH
    4. Distinguish between anabolic and catabolic metabolism and explain how enzymes control metabolic processes
    5. Describe how energy is made available for cellular activities.
    6. Outline the general roles played in cells by various types of organic and inorganic substances
    7. Describe the general metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, and explain how metabolic pathways are regulated
  3. Identify the major structures of living cells and explain the major functions of each structure
    1. Describe the general characteristics of a composite cell and explain how cells differ from one another
    2. Explain how the structure of a plasma membrane is related to its function
    3. Describe each kind of cytoplasmic organelle and explain the function of each organelle
    4. Identify the components of a cell nucleus and explain their importance in cell life
    5. Explain the membrane transport processes and understand how the cell uses these processes to regulate exchanges between the cell and its environment
    6. Make a series of drawings to demonstrate the cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis.
    7. Draw an illustration of a DNA molecule and explain how the information contained in it is used to synthesize proteins
    8. Describe how DNA molecules are replicated and how they may be altered.
    9. Describe the process of protein synthesis
  4. Describe the general characteristics and functions of the various types of human tissues.
    1. List the various types of epithelial tissues and explain their functions in the human body
    2. List the types of connective tissues and their functions
    3. Distinguish among the three types of muscles tissue
    4. Describe the general characteristics and functions of nervous tissue.
    5. Show how the structure of these tissues is related to their functions in the body.
  5. Discuss the structure and function of the skin and the integumentary system.
    1. Describe the structure of the various layers of the skin and the general functions of each layer
    2. Describe the accessory organs associ8ated with the skin and explain their functions
    3. Explain how the skin regulates body temperature
    4. Explain how the skin, with its accessory organs, forms the integumentary system
    5. Give examples which show the importance of the integumentary system to proper body function
  6. Give a detailed explanation of the structure and function of the skeletal system.
    1. Describe the general structure of a bone and list the functions of its parts.
    2. Describe the development of the skeleton and explain the effects of such factors as sunlight, nutrition, hormones, and exercise
    3. Locate and identify all the bones of the body, together with their major features.
    4. Explain how the structure of joints is used to classify them
    5. Describe the general structure of a synovial joint
    6. Use a model of a knee joint to explain the structure and function of a joint.
  7. Demonstrate an understanding of the muscular system
    1. Name the major parts of a skeletal muscle giver and describe the function of each part
    2. Explain the major events that occur during muscle fiber contraction.
    3. Distinguish between fast and slow fibers, and explain oxygen debt and muscle fatigue
    4. Compare the structure and function of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles.
    5. Explain how muscles and skeleton interact to produce the complex body movements and maintain posture
    6. Locate and identify the major superficial muscles of the human body and describe their actions.
    7. Dissect a cat for comparison of muscles
  8. Describe the basic anatomy of nervous tissue and explain how it functions.
    1. Describe the structure of a generalized neuron
    2. Name the types of neuroglial cells and their functions
    3. Explain how an impulse is triggered and conducted along a neuron, and how the impulse is conducted from one neuron to another
    4. Explain the terms: “resting potential”, “action potential”, and “postsynaptic potential”.
    5. Discuss the structure and classification of nerves
  9. Describe the structure and functions of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
    1. Use a diagram to show how a reflex arc operates
    2. Describe the coverings of the brain and spinal cord
    3. Use a model of the spinal cord to explain its structure and major functions.
    4. Use a model of the brain to demonstrate its major parts and explain their functions
    5. List the major parts of the peripheral nervous system and describe how the system functions
    6. Name the cranial nerves and list their major functions
    7. Diagram the parts of the autonomic nervous system and explain the functions of it sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
  10. Discuss the somatic and special senses: their structure, functions, and importance to life.
    1. Name five kinds of receptors and explain the function of each.
    2. Describe the receptors associated with the senses of touch and pressure, temperature, and pain
    3. Explain the importance of stretch receptors in muscles and tendons.
    4. Describe the relationship between the senses of smell and taste.
    5. Use an ear model to name its parts, and explain the function of each part.
    6. Distinguish between static and dynamic equilibrium
    7. Use an eye model to name its parts and explain the function of each part.
    8. Explain how the brain uses the eye to perceive the environment, and how depth and distance are perceived



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