Sep 17, 2019
BIO 112 - General Biology I Credits: 4
Lecture Hours: 3
Lab Hours: 2
Practicum Hours: 0
Work Experience: 0
Course Type: Core
First semester of Biology for majors. Topics covered include chemistry of life, cells, bioenergetics, genetics, evolution, viruses, prokaryotes and protists.
Prerequisite: H.S. Biology & H.S. Chemistry or equivalent
- Use the scientific method
- Explain how use of the scientific method brought about the current understanding of the structure and functions of living organisms
- Describe contributions of significant researchers in biology.
- Describe how methods used by researchers in biology enables them to make major contributions to the field
- Examine characteristics of life and the study of biology
- Characterize organisms
- Classify organisms
- Name organisms
- Evaluate the characteristics of life molecules
- Use chemical terminology
- Describe atoms, molecules, chemical bonds, and chemical reactions
- Describe characteristics of water
- Use the pH scale
- Summarize basics of carbon chemistry
- Identify functional groups of organic molecules
- Identify characteristics of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
- Identify amino acids
- Identify levels of protein structure
- Identify characteristics of nucleic acids
- Investigate biological molecule in the laboratory
- Assess metabolism
- Use terminology of metabolism
- Characterize metabolic pathways
- Classify forms of energy
- Explain the laws of thermodynamics
- Apply concepts of free-energy
- Describe cellular work
- Summarize ways ATP serves as the energy currency of life.
- Characterize enzymes
- Relate energy of activation to enzyme activity
- Describe enzyme function and regulation
- Describe control of metabolism
- Investigate enzymes in the laboratory
- Examine microscopy
- Use terminology of microscopy
- Use a light microscope
- Describe electron microscopes and their use
- Evaluate characteristics of cells including cellular components
- Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
- Describe features and functions of the nucleus and its contents
- Examine ribosomes and their function
- Describe features and functions of the endomembrane system of cells
- Summarize functions of cell vesicles and vacuoles
- Explain how the structures of the mitochondrion and the chloroplast relate to their functions
- Distinguish between plastids of plant cells
- Describe features and functions of the cytoskeleton
- Explain how the structures of cilia and flagella provide for their functions.
- Describe development and structure of plant cell walls
- Explain how the glycocalyx of animal cells provides for cellular functions.
- Differentiate between types of intercellular junctions
- Evaluate cell membrane structure and function
- Use current terminology to describe cell membranes and membrane transport.
- Summarize functions of the cell membrane
- Explain how membrane composition determines membrane fluidity and structure
- Classify transport proteins
- Describe diffusion and its relation to potential energy.
- Explain osmosis
- Explain the generation of membrane potential
- Describe endocytosis
- Investigate membrane transport in the laboratory
- Judge cellular respiration
- Diagram energy flow through the biosphere
- Summarize chemical reactions of cellular respiration of glucose and the harvest of chemical energy in cells
- Distinguish between substrate-level and oxidative phosphorylation
- Distinguish between oxidation and reduction
- Name coenzymes used in cellular respiration
- Specify the cellular sites of the processes of cellular respiration
- Explain chemosmotic phosphorylation
- Describe fermentation and why it is necessary
- Relate how cells get energy from glucose to how they get energy from other molecules.
- Explain how ATP production is controlled in cells
- Explain the evolutionary significance of glycolysis
- Investigate respiration in the laboratory
- Examine photosynthesis
- Use current terminology to describe photosynthetic events and structures.
- Distinguish between autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition
- Distinguish between photosynthetic autotrophs and chemosynthetic autotrophs.
- Relate chloroplast structure to function
- Summarize chemical reactions of photosynthesis and features of light
- Relate the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll to its action spectrum.
- Examine light absorption cause the electron flow of photosystems I and II.
- Compare cyclic and noncyclic electron flow in the light reactions of photosynthesis
- Describe the roles of ATP and NADPH in the Calvin-Benson cycle.
- Describe evolutionary adaptations that minimize photorespiration.
- Describe the chemical fates of the products of photosynthesis.
- Investigate photosynthesis in the laboratory
- Assess cellular reproduction
- Describe binary fission in prokaroyes
- Examine chromosomes and their structural forms
- Summarize cell chromosome number changes in the sexual life cycles and the periods of the cell cycle
- Describe structures and events required for chromosomal movement in mitosis.
- Compare cytokinesis of plant and animal cells
- Describe control of the cell cycle and the consequences of lack of this control.
- Explain the relationship of chromosomes to heredity
- Distinguish between sexual and asexual reproduction of organisms.
- Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis and identify their stages
- Distinguish between mitotic interphase and meiotic interkinesis.
- Explain how independent assortment, crossing over, and random fertilization contribute to genetic variability in sexually reproducing organisms.
- Explain how genetic variation in populations of organisms is crucial to Darwin’s theory of evolution
- Critique Mendelian genetic
- Summarize Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment.
- Use Punnett squares and the laws of probability to predict the genotype and phenotype ratios of F1 and F2 generations of mono-, di-, and tri-hybrid crosses.
- Differentiate between complete dominance, recessiveness, incomplete dominance, and codominance.
- Explain how sex-linkage may affect genotype and phenotype ratios.
- Use pedigrees to determine patterns of inheritance
- Explain the presence of lethal genes in the population
- Explain methods used in genetic screening.
- Relate chromosomal inheritance to independent assortment and sex determination
- Describe processes and results of crossing-over
- Describe how changes in chromosome number can occur and the results of these changes
- Explain the theory of genomic imprinting and extra nuclear inheritance
- Perform mendelian crosses in the laboratory
- Assess molecular genetics
- Describe the processes used to determine that DNA is the genetic material.
- Identify chemical characteristics of DNA replication
- Explain the one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis
- Differentiate between types of RNA and in contrast to DNA
- Distinguish between transcription and translation by processes and the location of these processes in cells and use the universal genetic code
- Explain processes involved translation in the cytoplasm and on the rough endoplasmic reticulum
- Explain how protein targeting in cells. relates to the site of translation.
- Describe differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA.
- Explain eykaryotic mRNA nuclear processing
- Describe functions of introns and gene splicing
- Differentiate between types of base-sequence mutations and their effects.
- Investigate molecular genetics in the laboratory
- Analyze viral and bacterial genetics
- Summarize viral composition and function and genome replication
- Distinguish between lytic and lysogenic reproductive cycles in a bacteriophage
- Describe cellular processes used to defend against viral infection.
- Examine how viruses may cause cancers
- Describe means of virus transmission
- Relate hypotheses explaining viral evolution
- Differentiate between viruses and living organisms
- Describe the bacterial chromosome and binary fission
- Summarize bacterial genetic recombination
- Describe roles of plasmids in bacterial life
- Describe natural and laboratory bacterial transformation and transduction.
- Explain how operons function in metabolic control
- Examine genome organization and expression in eukaryotes
- Compare genomic organization in eukaryotes to prokaryotes.
- Describe DNA packing
- Distinguish between types of chromatin and the functions.
- Describe hypothesized functions and origins or repetitive sequences and multigene families
- Describe examples of genome plasticity
- Describe the molecular basis of gene expression control
- Summarize the processes, applications, and ethics of genetic engineering
- Describe functions and uses of restriction enzymes
- Examine uses of gel electrophoresis in DNA technology
- Describe vectors used in recombinant DNA technology
- Summarize source of genes for cloning
- Outline procedures used for gene cloning and transformation of bacteria and other cells.
- Outline procedures used to sequence DNA
- Describe applications of recombinant DNA technology
- Describe procedures and processes that comprise the Human Genome project.
- Discuss safety and ethical considerations of recombinant DNA research.
- Analyze elements of evolution
- Describe development of evolutionary theory
- Summarize the Hardy-Weinberg theorem
- Use terminology of evolution
- Apply knowledge of molecular genetics to evolutionary theory.
- Relate sexual dimorphism and diploidy to evolution
- Summarize speciation
- Outline phylogeny
- Describe views of the origin of life
- Investigate evolution in the laboratory
- Examine the prokaryotes
- Use appropriate terminology to describe prokaryotes
- Classify prokaryotes
- Describe prokaryotic metabolism, motility, gene exchange, and survival mechanisms
- Describe prokaryotic interactions with ecosystems
- Describe factor that allow prokaryotes to cause disease
- List Koch’s postulates
- Classify toxins
- Observe prokaryotes in the laboratory
- Assess the protists
- Point out the major groups of protists
- Compare the major groups of protists
- Explain protoplasmic level of development
- Discuss principles of parasitism
- Describe life cycles and pathology of parasitic protozoans.
- Point out the economic importance of the protozoans
- Observe protists in the laboratory
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