Feb 01, 2023  
2022-2023 Course Catalog 
2022-2023 Course Catalog
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BIO 173 - Anatomy & Physiology II

Credits: 4
Lecture Hours: 3
Lab Hours: 2
Practicum Hours: 0
Work Experience: 0
Course Type: Core

Anatomy & Physiology II is a continuation of Anatomy & Physiology I. Coverage includes the following systems: endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Major topics also covered include: fluid and electrolyte balance, nutrition, metabolism, human development, and heredity. Lecture and lab are integrated.
Prerequisite: A grade of “C” or better in BIO 168 - Anatomy & Physiology I  
  1. Determine how the endocrine system controls body activities by releasing hormones
    1. Locate the major endocrine organs of the body
    2. List the major hormones secreted by endocrine structures and the primary effects of each hormone
    3. Explain how water-soluble and lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects on target tissues through second messengers or by activating specific genes
    4. Describe the humoral, neural, and hormonal stimuli for hormone release
    5. Summarize the structural and functional relationships between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
    6. Give an example of negative feedback control over hormone secretion
  2. Examine how blood serves as the internal transport system of the body
    1. List the functions of blood
    2. Describe the general composition and physical characteristics of blood
    3. Describe the structure, function, and production of erythrocytes
    4. State the primary function and relative abundance of each type of leukocyte
    5. Describe the structure and function of platelets
    6. Summarize the events of hemostasis
    7. Name the antigens and antibodies present in each ABO blood type
    8. Predict which blood types are compatible and what happens when the incorrect ABO or Rh blood type is transfused
  3. Establish how the heart pumps blood through the blood vessels of the cardiovascular system
    1. Describe the shape, location, orientation, coverings, layers, chambers, and valves of the heart
    2. Dissect a heart to learn about musculature, valves, and internal structures
    3. Describe the structural and functional properties of cardiac muscle
    4. Trace the path of blood through the right and left sides of the heart, including its passage through the heart valves, and indicate whether the blood is oxygen-rich or oxygen-poor
    5. Explain how the cardiac conduction system produces coordinated heart chamber contractions
    6. Identify the waveforms in a normal electrocardiogram and explain the electrical events represented by each waveform
    7. Relate the electrical events represented on an electrocardiogram to the mechanical events of the cardiac cycle
    8. Determine the influence of various factors on heart rate and stroke volume 
    9. Predict how changes in heart rate and stroke volume affect cardiac output
  4. Examine how blood vessels form circulatory pathways that transport blood throughout the body
    1. Differentiate the structure and function of elastic arteries, muscular arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins
    2. Locate the major arteries and veins of the pulmonary and systemic circuits
    3. Summarize the relationships between blood flow, blood pressure, and resistance
    4. Predict how changes in cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood volume influence blood pressure
    5. Assess circulatory efficiency by measuring pulse rate and blood pressure and comparing them to normal values
    6. Describe the neural, hormonal, and renal regulation of blood pressure
    7. Outline factors involved in capillary exchange and bulk flow
    8. Explain how muscular compression and valves aid venous return
  5. Determine how the lymphatic system assists both the cardiovascular and immune systems 
    1. Explain how returning fluid in the interstitial space to the blood affects blood volume and blood pressure
    2. Describe the structure, distribution, and functions of the lymphatic vessels
    3. Explain the source of lymph and the mechanisms of lymph transport
    4. Discuss how lymphatic structures provide the structural basis of the immune system
    5. List the components, locations, and functions of the primary and secondary lymphatic structures
  6. Compare and contrast innate (nonspecific) and adaptive (specific) immune responses
    1. Give examples of surface membrane barriers that act as the first line of defense
    2. Describe the innate internal defenses that act as the second line of defense
    3. Differentiate the origin, maturation process, and general functions of B and T lymphocytes
    4. Describe the humoral (antibody-mediated) response
    5. Explain the process of the cellular (cell-mediated) response
  7. Establish how the respiratory system supplies blood with oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide
    1. Describe the location, structure, and function for each of the major respiratory organs
    2. List, in order, the conducting and respiratory zone structures that air passes through from the nasal cavity to the alveoli
    3. Relate the inverse relationship between gas pressure and volume of the gas to airflow during pulmonary ventilation
    4. Sequence the events of inspiration and expiration 
    5. Define each of the respiratory air volumes and capacities
    6. Explain how partial pressure gradients promote gas movements in the body
    7. Explain the ways in which oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in blood
    8. Describe the locations and functions of the brain stem respiratory centers
  8. Examine how the digestive system breaks down food and absorbs nutrients for use by body cells
    1. Identify the organs that compose the alimentary canal and the related accessory digestive organs
    2. Describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of each organ along the alimentary canal
    3. Summarize the digestive activities that occur at each organ along the alimentary canal
    4. Describe the structure and function of each accessory digestive organ
    5. List the digestive enzymes, their sources, their substrates, and their products of chemical digestion
    6. Explain the hormonal and neural regulation of digestive processes
    7. Name important sources and main cellular uses for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals in the body
  9. Determine how the urinary system maintains the composition of extracellular fluids and removes wastes from the body
    1. Describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra
    2. Explain how filtration, reabsorption, and secretion in the nephron determines the volume and composition of urine
    3. Trace the flow of filtrate from the renal corpuscle through the collecting duct
    4. Trace the path of urine from the collecting duct to the external urethral orifice
    5. Describe the micturition reflex and the voluntary control of micturition
    6. Describe how the kidneys regulate blood volume and the concentrations of important solutes of the body
  10. Establish how organs of the male and female reproductive systems cooperate to produce offspring
    1. Describe the location, structure, and function of the testes and male accessory reproductive organs
    2. Describe the location, structure, and function of the ovaries and female accessory reproductive organs
    3. Outline the events of spermatogenesis and oogenesis
    4. Explain the endocrine regulation of male and female reproductive function
    5. Relate fluctuations of gonadotropin and ovarian hormone levels to changes of the ovary and uterus
    6. Outline the sequence of events during prenatal development and parturition
    7. Explain how genes direct human development and characteristics
  11. Examine concepts of anatomy and physiology through lab-based learning
    1. Locate gross anatomical structures through dissection of mammalian organs
    2. Use a variety of laboratory methods to examine structures and functions of the human body

Competencies Revised Date: AY2022

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