Apr 17, 2024  
2020-2021 Course Catalog 
    
2020-2021 Course Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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PHR 181 - Pharmacy Operations I with lab

Credits: 4
Lecture Hours: 3
Lab Hours: 2
Practicum Hours: 0
Work Experience: 0
Course Type: Voc/Tech
This course emphasizes the introductory operational responsibilities of pharmacy technicians including the processing and handling of medications and medication orders, procurement, billing reimbursement and inventory management, patient and medication safety, technology, regulatory issues, and quality assurance.
Competencies
  1. Collect needed patient information from the medical chart, patient profile, or medical record when needed.
    1. Explain the purposes for collecting patient- specific information by pharmacists.
    2. Organize information in patient medical charts or records and patient profiles.
    3. Locate needed information in patient medical charts, records, and patient profiles.
  2. Examine the data pharmacists use in a medication-use review.
    1. Explain the purpose of a medication-use review.
    2. Describe the structure of a medication-use review.
    3. Monitor medication use to assure it is consistent with the prescription/medication order for the patient.
  3. Collect data for the pharmacist’s use in managing pharmacy services.
    1. State the types of information the pharmacist might request to assist in managing pharmacy services.
    2. Explain the use of productivity data in contemporary pharmacy practice.
    3. Compare and contrast the functions and applications of several currently used pharmacy productivity measurement systems.
    4. Explain technicians’ potential roles in establishing, maintaining, and participating in a pharmacy productivity measurement system.
  4. Assess prescription/medication orders for completeness and authenticity when receiving orders via paper or electronic systems.
    1. Discuss the components of a complete prescription/medication order including prescription/medication orders for controlled substances.
    2. When given an abbreviated instruction for medication use, state the full wording of the instruction.
    3. State the schedule for controlled substances and commonly used medications that fall into each category.
    4. Verify the validity of a prescriber’s DEA number.
    5. Apply techniques to detect forged or altered prescriptions.
    6. Explain the importance of alerting the pharmacist if a prescription medication order appears to be illegitimate.
  5. Obtain information to complete a prescription/medication order.
    1. Describe methods for obtaining missing pieces of information in a prescription/medication order.
    2. Explain the importance of thorough documentation of prescription order clarification required for auditing purposes.
  6. Identify situations when screening refills and renewals when the technician should notify the pharmacist of potential inappropriateness.
    1. Review medication refill history and patient profile when screening refills and renewals.
    2. Explain common situations where the technician should notify the pharmacist of potential inappropriateness.
  7. Obtain prescribed medications or devices from inventory.
    1. Describe typical storage arrangements for medications and devices.
    2. Explain the importance of the way medications and devices are typically arranged.
  8. Follow safety policies and procedures in the preparation of all medications.
    1. Explain the importance of following safety policies and procedures when preparing medications.
    2. Describe standard safety policies and procedures for preparing medications.
  9. Follow established policies and procedures for recording the preparation of controlled substances.
    1. State the meaning of the term “controlled substance.”
    2. Discuss legal obligations regarding recording the preparation of controlled substances.
  10. Apply special handling procedures for drugs with mandated Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS).
    1. Refine Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) and its importance.
    2. Discuss the importance of distributing medication guides and patient package inserts.
  11. Follow protocol to assemble appropriate patient information materials.
    1. Describe pharmacist obligations for counseling as required in OBRA ‘90.
    2. Explain the importance of including written patient information at the time of dispensing.
    3. Describe the types of written information that are typically included with dispensed products.
  12. Follow an established procedure for purchasing pharmaceuticals, devices, and supplies.
    1. Describe typical procedures for purchasing pharmaceuticals, devices, and supplies.
    2. Discuss typical procedures used to expedite emergency orders/prescriptions.
    3. Explain typical procedures used for the purchase of atypical products (e.g., biologics, interferons, HIV medications, investigational medications, non-formulary products).
  13. Apply accepted procedures of inventory control (e.g., prime vendor, just-in-time).
    1. Describe the various methods of inventory control (e.g., prime vendor, just- in-time).
    2. Define “perpetual inventory systems” and explain their use in pharmacies.
  14. Follow established policies and procedures verifying specifications on the original order when receiving inventory.
    1. Describe the general tasks involved in receiving and verifying the order of inventory.
    2. Discuss methods for handling back ordered medications.
  15. Follow established policies and procedures for placing pharmaceuticals, durable medical equipment, devices, and supplies in inventory under proper storage conditions.
    1. Ensure appropriate updates to electronic or manual inventory systems upon receipt of new inventory.
    2. Review manufacturer specifications for appropriate storage of pharmaceuticals, durable medical equipment, devices, and supplies.
  16. Evaluate established policies and procedures for removing from inventory expired/discontinued pharmaceuticals, durable medical equipment, devices, supplies, or recalled items in these same categories.
    1. Define the terms “expired,” “discontinued,” and “recalled” as used in pharmacy.
    2. Describe common reasons for discontinuing or recalling items.
    3. Explain a standard procedure for inspecting nursing units for expired, discontinued, or recalled medications.
    4. Discuss a standard procedure for reviewing, removing, and handling pharmaceuticals, equipment, devices, and supplies that have expired, been recalled, or are otherwise unfit for patient utilization.
    5. Explain the importance of maintaining an inventory system through accurate documentation.
    6. Compare the various levels of recall and the associated responsibilities for each level.
    7. Explain the importance to cash flow of returning expired or excess inventory goods.
  17. Identify pharmaceuticals, durable medical equipment, devices, and supplies to be ordered.
    1. Explain the importance of maintaining an adequate supply of pharmaceuticals, durable medical equipment, devices, and supplies.
    2. Describe the problems associated with an excessive supply of pharmaceuticals, durable medical equipment, devices, and supplies.
    3. Discuss the role that judgment plays in supplementing an automated system for determining the timing and amount of pharmaceuticals, durable medical equipment, devices, and supplies to order.
  18. Assess alternative ways of obtaining a pharmacy item that is not available.
    1. State categories of alternative sources of items not available from the primary vendor at time of need.
    2. Explain the importance of evaluating the cost of obtaining a needed item from an alternative source.
  19. Evaluate methods for communicating changes in product availability to patients, caregivers, and/or healthcare professionals.
    1. Use resources to identify reasons for product availability changes.
    2. Assess whether product availability changes affect distribution in the short or long term.
  20. Interview patients, their representatives, or their caregivers to obtain needed patient information.
    1. Verify appropriate patient identifying information.
    2. Use patient friendly language to form appropriate questions when interviewing patients, their representatives, or their caregivers.
  21. Obtain required patient information from other members of the health care team when needed.
    1. Determine appropriate information (medical history, disease state diagnosis, medication history, lab work, etc.) to be obtained from the health care team specific to each individual patient care situation.
    2. Collect information using various forms of communication (telephone, fax, email, etc.)
  22. Collect patient-specific information in a useful electronic or manual format.
    1. Organize patient information using information technology systems and manual filing systems.
    2. Prepare complete and concise records for detailed follow-up with patients and members of the health care team.
  23. Identify situations where the patient requires the attention of the pharmacist.
    1. Refer questions regarding prescriptions and over-the-counter medications to a pharmacist.
    2. Recommend that patients discuss drug information concerns or health matters with a pharmacist.
  24. Use effective communication skills to determine if a patient or caregiver would like pharmacist counseling on the use of medications.
    1. Explain the importance of counseling patients in the use of medications.
    2. Ask patients to determine if they would like pharmacist counseling.
  25. Create a new, or enter data into an existing, patient profile according to an established procedure.
    1. Use the following systems for inputting prescription/medication order information: metric, avoirdupois, household, and apothecary systems.
    2. Obtain pertinent patient specific information into patient profiles (name, date of birth, gender, address, phone number, allergies, etc.)
  26. Follow an established procedure to generate accurate and complete product labels.
    1. Explain the importance of accurate labeling of pharmaceuticals.
    2. Describe the information included in a complete product label.
  27. Count or measure finished dosage forms as specified by the prescription/medication order.
    1. Count and measure using: metric, avoirdupois, household system (e.g. teaspoon, tablespoon) and apothecary.
    2. Operate common pharmaceutical measurement and weighing devices.
    3. Convert from one measurement system to another as needed.
  28. Package the product in the appropriate type and size of container using a manual or automated system.
    1. Package products in the appropriate type and size of container.
    2. Describe the various sizes and types of containers for the packaging of pharmaceuticals in different pharmacy settings.
    3. Describe options for the packaging of products for children and patients who are the physically challenged or aged.
    4. Operate automated packaging equipment.
  29. Evaluate established policies and procedures to record the distribution of prescription medications.
    1. Operate automated distribution systems.
    2. Describe standard policies and procedures regarding the distribution of prescription medications.
  30. Assess policies and procedures to record the distribution of controlled substances.
    1. Operate automated distribution systems.
    2. Describe standard policies and procedures for recording the distribution of controlled substances.
    3. Explain the importance of policies and procedures in place regarding the distribution of controlled substances.
  31. Prioritize special procedures pharmacy technicians will be responsible for regarding preparing, storing and distributing controlled substances.
    1. Assist pharmacists in preparing, storing and distributing controlled substance medications.
    2. Complete appropriate documentation for dispensing controlled substance medications.
  32. Affix the appropriate primary and auxiliary labels to containers.
    1. State categories of medications that require auxiliary labels and what those labels are.
    2. Explain the importance of placing labels so that all information on all labels is visible.
  33. Compare the manufacturer’s recommendation and/or the pharmacy’s guidelines for storage of medications prior to distribution.
    1. Explain the importance of proper storage of medications.
    2. Follow the storage requirements for different medication products.
  34. Deliver the correct medication, equipment, device, or supplies to the correct patient or their representative.
    1. Explain the importance of getting the right medication, equipment, device, or supplies to the patient or their representative.
    2. Describe the various systems used to distribute medications correctly.
  35. Demonstrate skill in the operation of a cash register.
    1. Explain different types of payment (e.g., debit, credit, cash, certificates, coupons) and how each is entered in the cash register.
    2. Replace cash register tapes and ribbons.
    3. Void transactions on the cash register.
    4. Explain the concept of departmental codes and how they are entered in the cash register.
    5. Make change.
    6. Count and balance the cash drawer at the end of the business day.



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