May 19, 2022  
2020-2021 Course Catalog 
    
2020-2021 Course Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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BIO 227 - Marine Biology II

Credits: 4
Lecture Hours: 3
Lab Hours: 2
Practicum Hours: 0
Work Experience: 0
Course Type: General
This course is the second in a series of two courses. The students will continue the study of polar, temperate and tropical marine organisms and their environmental and ecological relationships. They will also examine the structure and function of marine flora and fauna using preserved and live specimens. The course includes hands-on laboratory activities, comparative anatomy, field observations, marine aquarium care, snorkeling, kayaking and introductory scuba.
Prerequisite: BIO 225  
Competencies
  1. Examine invertebrate phylums and lower chordate phylums not examined extensively in Marine Biology I.
    1. Review the classification of invertebrates presented in Marine Biology I.
    2. Use a microscope and/or dissection to identify and compare (within phylums and between phylums), the form and function of external and internal anatomical features of these organisms; bryozoans (2), brachiopod (1), bivalves (4), gastropods (1), chitons (1
    3. Compare and contrast respiration, excretion, circulation, digestion, sensory perception, locomotion, any defense mechanisms, skeletal support (as appropriate), and reproduction in the animal groups listed in objective 1.2.
    4. Perform oral and/or written tests to discern the fulfillment of objectives 1.2 and 1.3.
    5. Summarize the method(s) of reproduction and recognize representative stages of life cycles for most of the animal groups listed in objective 1.2.
    6. List and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the rigid arthropod exoskeleton in comparison to the fluid hydrostatic skeleton of annelid worms.
    7. Identify and compare the survival advantages and disadvantages an animal with radial body symmetry has over an animal with bilateral symmetry.
    8. Explain the ecological roles of the organisms in 1.2.
    9. Hypothesize why many critical sense organs are concentrated in the head region of “higher” animals rather than in other parts of their bodies.
    10. Summarize information about Chaetognatha including food sources and ecological niche.
  2. Examine marine fishes.
    1. Be able to label the parts, markings, scale types, and tail shapes of fish.
    2. Recognize at least 65 families of common Caribbean cartilaginous and bony fishes and identify their ecological niche.
    3. Identify 180-250 commonly sighted Caribbean reef fish by their common names.
    4. Look at the shape, mouthy parts, coloration pattern, and tail shape of an unknown fish and hypothesize its potential home environment, ecological niche, life style, and swimming speed.
    5. Describe three characteristics of fish living in each of the three photic zones.
    6. Explain three different methods of buoyancy control.
    7. Explain the location and function of a countercurrent blood vessel system in tuna.
    8. Describe the structural and physiological differences that allow a greater work output from the red muscle of fish than from a similar amount of white muscle.
    9. Discuss and compare the life cycles and migratory patterns of European eels and sockeye salmon.
    10. Define and explain the advantages of the following reproductive strategies in fish; oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous, sex transformation, simultaneous hermaphrodite, protogynous and protandrous sequential hermaphrodites, “polygamy”, pelagic spawners,
    11. List two adaptive advantages of schooling.
    12. Explain some of the sensory receptors fish have to monitor dissolved chemicals, sound vibrations, light intensity, color, their own body orientations, and weak electric and magnetic fields.
    13. Explain colors, color changes, and coloration strategies in fish.
    14. Use a microscope and/or dissection to identify and compare the form and function of external and internal anatomical features of these fish: lamprey, bony fish (3-4 species), and cartilaginous fish (3-4 species).
    15. Compare and contrast respiration, excretion, circulation, digestion, sensory perception, swimming, skeletal support, and reproduction in the fish listed in objective 2.14.
    16. Perform oral and/or written tests to discern the fulfillment of objectives 2.14 and 2.15.
    17. Explain the ecological roles of the fish in 2.14.
    18. List two reasons for migrations and four navigational cues used by migrating fish.
  3. Examine marine tetrapods
    1. List the three classes of air-breathing marine tetrapods.
    2. Arrange classes of Chordata in order of increasing advancement or complexity.
    3. Hypothesize why amphibians cannot survive in a marine environment.
    4. Use a microscope and dissection to identify and compare the form and function of external and internal anatomical features of these organisms: bony fish, snake, turtle, bird, and mink.
    5. Compare and contrast respiration, excretion, circulation, digestion, sensory perception, locomotion, skeletal support and reproduction in the animal groups listed in objective 3.4.
    6. Explain the ecological roles of the organisms in 3.4.
  4. Examine marine reptiles.
    1. Identify advances reptiles have over fish and amphibians and explain their relevance regarding marine reptiles abilities to survive on land and in the marine environment.
    2. Compare and contrast the anatomy and adaptations of saltwater turtles to freshwater turtles.
    3. Identify common names of the seven marine turtles and where they are most commonly found.
    4. Discuss the similarities and differences in diets of the marine turtles.
    5. Summarize the health problems turtles at the Marathon and Juno turtle hospitals are encountering.
    6. Summarize reproduction in marine turtles and include information on migrations.
    7. Explain the functioning of TEDs (Turtle Exclusion Devices).
    8. List several dangers other than fishing and hunting that sea turtles encounter.
    9. Compare and contrast the anatomy, habitats, special adaptations, reproductive cycles, and ecological niches of the American alligator and crocodile.
    10. Name two saltwater crocodiles other that the American crocodile.
    11. Summarize the feeding habits and special adaptations the marine iguanas of the Galapagos exhibit
    12. Compare and contrast marine snakes with land snakes.
    13. Describe the feeding and reproductive habits of sea snakes.
    14. Identify 6 of the more common sea snakes from pictures.
    15. Describe the sexual dimorphic characteristics of sea turtles, the marine iguana and a crocodilian.
  5. Examine seabirds and shorebirds.
    1. Identify eight bird species seen in Iowa that are also commonly seen in estuaries or along ocean shores and identify 14 additional birds that can be seen in Florida.
    2. List at least 3 characteristics other than coloration, of any particular bird that might be helpful in identifying the bird.
    3. Look at 3 unknown birds and determine, based on their anatomical features, their potential ecological niches and habitats.
    4. List adaptations birds have for flight.
    5. List adaptations seabirds have for dealing with the salt in the seawater.
    6. Summarize the characteristics, diets, and nesting habits of each of the following groups of birds; shorebirds, gulls and relatives; pelicans, cormorants, and relatives; tubenoses; and penguins.
    7. Compare and contrast puffins and penguins.
    8. Describe the feeding habits and breeding habits of the white pelicans that migrate through Iowa.
    9. Describe the migratory habits of the cormorants that pass through Iowa.
    10. Design a time and energy budget lab for analyzing bird behavior and energy requirements.
    11. Compare and contrast the health problems encountered by birds housed at Iowa wildlife rehabilitation centers to those of Florida rehabilitation centers.
    12. Be able to identify the main types of bird feathers and describe or demonstrate how to appropriately clip a bird?s wing feathers to prevent flight.
  6. Examine marine mammals.
    1. Summarize the characteristics of mammals.
    2. Other than shape, list and explain four adaptations of diving marine mammals.
    3. Describe some obvious sexually dimorphic characteristics exhibited by mature elephant seals, fur seals, walruses, killer whales, and polar bears.
    4. Excluding insulating fat, list and explain two adaptations of a pinniped, and otter, a polar bear, and a whale that prevent heat loss.
    5. Compare the reproductive cycle of a selected pinniped to that of a migratory whale.
    6. Be able to identify by common names 3 sirenians, 12 pinnipeds, 12 toothed whales, and 8 baleen whales.
    7. List two or more structural features that distinguish each of the following marine mammal groups from the others; baleen whales and toothed whales, seals and sea lions, seals and walrus, dolphins and porpoises, dugongs and manatees, sirenians and pinniped
    8. Explain echolocation, its capabilities and uses.
    9. Be able to describe several of the behaviors observed in whales; spy hopping, slapping, bubble netting, and breaching.
    10. Select three different whales and compare their feeding styles.
    11. Explain how human?s activites have had negative impacts on the populations of each of the following; manatees, sea otters, stellar sea lions, and right whales.
    12. Know the distribution and dominant foods of sea otters, river otters, eared seals, true seals, walrus, sirenians, polar bears, toothed whales, and baleen whales. Name two marine mammals that feed on other homeotherms.
  7. Explore intertidal communities.
    1. Review the causes of tides and what spring tides and neap tides are.
    2. Define what is meant by the intertidal zone.
    3. Identify some of the challenges of organisms that live in the intertidal zone.
    4. Define and label the following zones; splash, supralittoral, littoral, infralittoral (subtidal), supralittoral fringe, midlittoral, and infralittoral fringe.
    5. Describe characteristics of the zones listed above for temperature and tropical rocky shores and temperature and tropical sandy shores.
    6. Identify from examples organisms that would appropriate for selected zones of temperate and tropical rocky shores and temperate and tropical sandy shores.
    7. Compare and contrast the main features of temperate and topical rocky shores.
    8. Compare and contrast temperate and tropical sandy shores.
    9. Compare and contrast the challenges and characteristics, such as species diversity, of communities that live in the upper, middle, and lower intertidal zones of rocky shores and sandy beaches.
    10. List challenges facing tide pool communities.
    11. Describe 4 or 5 different strategies invertebrates and algaes evolved in order to survive on rocky shores that have high wave action.
    12. Explain why and how temperate east coast and west coast rocky shore intertidal communities differ.
    13. List abiotic and biotic factors that have an impact on distribution of organisms on a rocky shore.
    14. Define meiofauna and describe factors that affect its distribution and populations.
    15. Define vertical zonation of intertidal sandy habitats and explain the different zones that would exist.
    16. Explain how filter-feeding mole crabs and coquinas respond to tidal movements.
  8. Describe estuarine environments.
    1. Describe the different geological types of estuaries.
    2. Explain the general circulation of an estuary.
    3. Define the terms pertaining to an organism’s tolerance to changes in salinity and internal osmotic pressure; osmotic conformers, osmoregulators, isotonic, stenohaline, and euryhaline.
    4. Explain the basic features and draw a food web for each of the following estuaries; saltmarshes, mangrove communities, mud flats, seagrass beds, and oyster reefs.
    5. List important contributions of estuaries.
    6. Describe physical characteristics and dominant flora and fauna of six Everglade habitats.
    7. Explain several ways man has had significant impact on Everglades’ vegetation, wildlife, and water flow.
    8. List 8 organisms that would commonly be seen growing on the prop roots of a Florida red mangrove.
    9. Select an animal from each habitat listed in 8.4 and describe special adaptations it has evolved for surviving in its respective habitat.
    10. Compare and contrast the productivity of seagrass beds, mangrove communities, and salt marshes.
  9. Examine coral reefs.
    1. Describe the characteristics and formation of these coral reefs; atoll, fringing, barrier, patch, and bank.
    2. Explain how the atolls of the Caribbean differ from those of the Pacific.
    3. Label the major life zones of a Caribbean coral reef and an indo-Pacific coral reef.
    4. Describe three types of symbiosis - mutualism, commensalisms, and parasitism- found on the reef and give an example of each.
    5. List three functions for the bright colors of coral reef fish.
    6. Describe a typical reef-forming coral and list the requirements for its reproduction and survival.
    7. Compare and contrast the anatomy, life cycle, asexual and sexual reproductive methods of a coral polyp with that of an anemone.
    8. Explain the significance of hermatypic corals to a tropical reef and describe their symbiotic relationship with the zooxanthellae typically found in their tissues.
    9. Differentiate the roles green calcareous algae and red encrusting coralline algae play in the reef ecosystem.
    10. Summarize the destructive (bioerosion) and constructive phases of a reef cycle
    11. Upon viewing a specimen or picture identify commonly seen Caribbean hydrocorals, gorgonians, stony corals, and black corals by common names or in some instances growth forms as using the Humann Reef Coral book as a guide.
    12. Explain how nutrient-poor tropical waters can host an ecosystem as productive as a coral reef.
    13. Elaborate on how corals compete with each other and with other reef species for space and light.
    14. Describe several biotic and abiotic threats to the reef, including natural phenomena, diseases, and impact of humans.
    15. Identify ecological roles of the coral reef.
    16. Relate some of the adaptations reef dwellers have evolved to survive in the highly competitive reef community.
  10. Examine life in the benthic and neritic zones of the continental shelves.
    1. Explain why continental shelves are so productive.
    2. Compare and contrast the communities that would live on a course sediments in moderately moving water versus fine sediments in weak currents.
    3. Discuss the advantages of organisms living on solid bottom substrates rather than on mud or sand.
    4. Draw a benthic food web and identify the fact that detritus is the basis of the web.
    5. Explain some of the environmental impacts people?s activities have had on kelp beds.
    6. Describe a kelp bed community and list organisms expected to be found there.
    7. Locate on a world map where the major kelp communities are.
    8. Summarize the growth patterns of Laminaria and Macrocystis.
    9. Explain how the dwindling number of otters on west coast of the US and over harvesting of lobsters on the east coast of Canada had a negative impact on kelp.
    10. List various feeding methods of benthic animals and relate those methods to the type of substrate the animals occupy.
    11. Describe how anoxic layers of sediment exposed by landslides or erosion become recolonized.
    12. Compare and contrast the waters over a coral reef to most neritic coastal waters.
    13. Summarize the ecological and survival advantages of planktonic larval stages for benthic animals living in shallow water.
    14. List the major factors that influence the vertical distribution of intertidal plant and animal species.
    15. Describe the causes of patchiness in a hard-bottom community and in a soft-bottom community.
    16. Draw a couple neritic food chains.
    17. State that copepods are the most abundant form of zooplankton.
    18. Explain how a trophic pyramid for the neritic zone differs from the typical trophic pyramid presented in ecology units.
    19. List 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of broadcast spawning by shallow-water benthic animals.
    20. Hypothesize the impact of global warming on the ecosystems of the neritic zones.
  11. Examine life in the open ocean.
    1. List five characteristics of the pelagic environments.
    2. Compare and contrast abiotic and biotic characteristics of the oceanic zone with the neritic zone.
    3. Explain 5 different ways to classify plankton (taxonomic, size, spatial, life history, and functional) and explain the terms associated with each method.
    4. Summarize the cause of vertical migration and its relationship to the deep scattering layers.
    5. Explain how a marine snow community might be considered a whole ecosystem.
    6. Explain how countershading works for tish and why the mollusks, Janthina and Glaucus have reverse countershading.
    7. Describe at least one example of megaplankton from each of the following phylums or subphylum: Cnidaria, Mollusca, and Urochordata.
    8. Compare and contrast the reproduction of a benthic carpet shark to that of an open water shark and the general reproductive strategies of bony fish to that of the open water shark.
    9. Describe at least 4 adaptations tuna have for living in the open ocean.
    10. Explain why the largest shark, ray, and mammal are planktivores instead of piscivores.
    11. Summarize the adaptations of the yellow-bellied snake has evolved for life as part of the nekton.
    12. Elaborate on the two ways locomotion and reduction of sinking rates organisms of the open ocean remain afloat.
    13. Explain how a tropic pyramid for the open ocean zone differs from the typical trophic pyramid of the neritic ocean.
    14. List ways animals of the open ocean avoid predation.
    15. Create 3 food chains of the open ocean each of a different length.
    16. Recognize that viroplankton is the most abundant plankton and be able to explain how it both benefits and impedes the production of biomass in the photic zone.
    17. Describe how temperature and light intensity change a long the sea surface from the equator poleward and from the sea surface near the equator downward to 1000 meters.
    18. Explain three adaptations and a sample food chain for animals living in the mesopelagic zone
    19. List three different feeding mechanisms for zooplankton.
  12. Examine life in the deep sea.
    1. Summarize some of the ways the deep ocean has been and is being explored
    2. Explain why early biologists assumed life did not exist in the deep ocean.
    3. List adaptations deep-sea animals have for coping with pressure and cold and explain the advantages these adaptations provide the animals over animals that live in the photic zone.
    4. Describe the roles bioluminescence plays in the lives of deep-sea animals.
    5. Contrast the tubular eye of a deep-sea fish to a spheroid eye and explain the advantages of the tubular eye.
    6. Describe the reproductive strategy and life cycle of the deep-sea angler fish.
    7. Recount some of the adaptations deep-sea animals have for finding food.
    8. State what is known about deep-sea squid.
    9. Defend biologists’ theory that many deep-sea animals have not changed for millions of years.
    10. Describe and coelacanth and explain the significance of its discovery.
    11. Explain what food sources exist for the benthic communities and construct a typical food chain.
    12. Compare and contrast abiotic and biotic characteristics of hydrothermal vent communities and cold-water seepage vent communities.
    13. Give examples of animals lacking digestive systems or possessing only a rudimentary digestive system and then explain how these animals derive their nutrition.
    14. Explain what is unusual about the food chain for animals found in deep-sea hot springs.
  13. Describe polar habitats and ecosystems.
    1. Explain adaptations each of the following has to survive in polar environments; polar bear, penguin, Weddell seal, walrus, plankton, beluga whale, and Antarctic fish.
    2. Describe advantages the phytoplankton and zooplankton of the Arctic have over thos of the tropics during the summer months.
    3. Draw a food web using krill as the starting organism.
    4. Describe some of the observations that have been made of invertebrates and fishes of the Antarctic such as size, age, reproductive cycle, or anatomical adaptations and compare these to those of deep-sea animals.
    5. Summarize some of the negative impacts humans have had on the Antarctic habitats.
    6. Compare and contrast environmental concerns in Arctic with those in the Antarctic.
  14. Summarize significant information pertaining to fisheries.
    1. Define what is meant by maximum sustainable yield.
    2. State two examples of overexploitation of living marine resources that were followed by a collapse of the stocks.
    3. Describe three ways in which human efforts to increase food production on land have reduced the potential yields of food from the sea.
    4. Explain why feeding livestock with commercial catch is not an efficient use of this resource.
    5. List three structural or behavioral features of anchovy, herring and other clupeoid fish that explain why they account for such a large portion of the total world fish catch.
    6. Explain the how fish populations are monitored and sustainable yields are determined.
    7. Summarize problems that occur from overfishing.
    8. Explain how overfishing is being addressed and some of the challenges those efforts are facing.
    9. List three specific biological reasons why the oceans, which cover over 70% of earth?s surface and account for 90% of life on earth, produce only about 1% of the total human food supply.
    10. Identify one physical, chemical, biological, and economic factor implicated in the statement that most of the world?s important fishing areas are located in relatively shallow water, especially along western coasts of continents.
    11. Describe these different methods of fishing ? purse seine, longline, trawl or dredge, and drift net ? focusing on how they work, which fisheries use these methods, pros and cons of the methods, and any adaptations that have made the method more environmen
    12. Describe three reasons why the Florida commercial fishermen feel the recent government regulations are unfair.
    13. Explain the tragedy of open access.
    14. Summarize some international efforts that have attempted to regulate fisheries.
    15. State the distance for the United Nations sanctioned Exclusive Economic zone for coastal nations.
    16. Explain how the existences of guano birds, Peruvian anchovies, El Nino, and fishing are interrelated.
    17. Explain why right, bowhead and gray whales were the most hunted whales in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries but late in the nineteenth and into the twentieth century other whales became popular to hunt.
    18. Describe why environmentalists are still concerned about the dolphin-tuna controversies.
    19. Explain the controversies regarding turtle-exclusion devises (TEDs).
    20. Explain why the United Nations tried to ban all drift netting by 1992 and why the attempts were unsuccessful.
    21. Summarize the impacts human intervention has had on the salmon fisheries and on mollusk and crustacean fisheries.
  15. Explain mariculture (aquaculture) and what it takes to maintain a controlled ecosystem.
    1. List five marine organisms that are being successfully farmed.
    2. Identify five problems restricting the development of mariculture programs.
    3. Explain whether or not mariculture has much potential in helping solve the world food problems.
    4. Recognize a variety of mariculture terms and techniques.
    5. Describe the importance of species selection for successful farming.
    6. Describe a minimum of two different types of systems used for environmentally controlled systems and state advantages and disadvantages of each.
    7. Explain the importance of physical facilities, reducing stress and proper nutrition.
    8. Give two examples of the usage of biologics and the usage of pharmaceuticals to control health problems.
    9. Summarize the ecological, health and economic arguments the shrimpers of the Gulf Coast have against the farmed shrimp imported from Ecuador and Southeast Asia.
    10. Elaborate on some of the problems associated with aquaculture including the escape of farmed stock into the wild.
    11. Describe a couple of examples environmentally friendly methods of aquaculture.
  16. Describe medical research connections to the marine world.
    1. List six medical benefits for humans that have been derived from marine organisms.
    2. Identify one type of medical research occurring at harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute.
    3. State why the research has increased so much in regard to pharmaceuticals able to be used with aquatic animals.
  17. Describe impact of development, private ownership and recreation along coastlines.
    1. State three ways recreational use of the sea affects the government ? local, state, or national.
    2. Summarize some of the sociologic, economic, and ecological impacts of private ownership and development along coastlines.
    3. State 3 ways recreational use of the sea has an impact on ecosystems.
  18. Describe non-living ocean resources.
    1. Explain two possible ways ocean waters play a role in the production of electricity.
    2. Describe two ways freshwater can be extracted from the sea.
    3. List four items that are mined that have resulted from the evaporation of seawater and state two uses for each item
    4. List 3 fossil fuels that are mined from the ocean explain how they formed and where they are currently mined.
    5. State the importance of nodules found on the ocean floor.
    6. Explain the relationship of Bonaire’s salt ponds to the life cycle of West Indian flamingoes.
    7. Give supporting evidence encouraging or discouraging more exploration for new seafloor oil deposits.
    8. State that sand and gravel are the most commonly mined substances in the ocean and list several reasons it is mined.
    9. Explain what a methane hydrate is and why if it is the largest known fuel reserve it is not being used.
  19. Examine pollution.
    1. List two types of marine pollutants that have simultaneous benefits and harmful effects on the organisms they contact.
    2. Explain how biological pollution differs from chemical pollution.
    3. Explain why disposal of radioactive wastes poses such a problem for society.
    4. Give two examples of how warm water can be a pollutant and describe the potential result.
    5. Recognize adaptive and destructive biological responses to pollutant stress for each level of organization - cellular, organismal, population, and community - and state the impacts these responses will have on the next level of organization.
    6. List five sources of oil pollution
    7. Explain the difficulties in determining the assimilative capacity of the ocean.
    8. Explain why oil spills that reach the intertidal zone and wash ashore are more destructive to marine life than those that stay in the open sea.
    9. Name the top three sources of debris polluting the oceans and the percentage of pollution attributed to each.
    10. List two characteristics of plastic debris that make plastic an ever-increasing problem in the oceans and describe its dangers and attempts to control it.
    11. identify two possible ways to reduce the destructive impact of sewage on the ocean bottom.
    12. State the group of animals that suffered the greatest threat from DDT and explain the manifestation of the threat.
    13. List the trophic levels that led to a North Atlantic grey seal contaminated with PCBs.
    14. Describe why fat-soluble toxins become more concentrated in tissues of animals at each higher trophic level in marine food chains.
    15. Explain how a heavy metal such as mercury has contaminated so many fish.
    16. Identify two ways in which shellfish become contaminated and explain what is meant by deporation.
    17. Identify specific actions students in Iowa can take to reduce some of the marine pollution problems.
    18. List three acts of Untied States Congress that have protected water quality and describe the major restrictions contained each.
    19. Summarize two international efforts designed to protect the marine environment.
    20. Summarize several sources of pollution from urban settings.
    21. Explain how air pollution can cause problems for the oceans.
    22. Explain why Iowa was an appropriate location for a national conference on the “dead zone” of the Gulf of Mexico.
    23. Explain how pollutants in the ocean can be harmful to humans.
  20. Demonstrate laboratory skills, field techniques, and appropriate water competencies.
    1. Perform basic water safety and snorkeling skills.
    2. Have the basics to develop underwater sign language communication.
    3. Maintain a saltwater aquarium
    4. Can identify and properly treat several nutrition, sanitation, and disease problems in controlled ecosystems.
    5. Run and interpret basic water quality test pH, CO2, ammonia, nitrogen, nitrate, and specific gravity, O2.
    6. Perform systematic dissections for the purposes of comparative anatomy.
    7. Record daily scientific logs.
    8. Construct charts and graphs from measured or given data
    9. Use basic scuba and marine biology instruments to obtain necessary data and information and record and interpret it properly
    10. Interpret data from charts and graphs and make generalizations.
    11. Use observation skills for purposes of identification and determination of an organism’s possible ecological niche.
    12. Develop hypotheses from basic data and devise methods to test them.
    13. Use scientific methods for devising experiments which have controls and variables.
    14. Communicate organized information graphically, in writing or orally, utilizing appropriate vocabulary.
    15. Follow safety rules in the laboratory, at the pool and in open water.
    16. Apply scientific concepts, theories and laws to given situations.
    17. Properly utilize, maintain and care for laboratory equipment.
    18. Critically analyze both sides of a controversial issue.
    19. Substantiate their opinions with concrete evidence.
    20. Improve the ability to memorize and/pr understand biological terms.
    21. Make wet mounts and use binocular and monocular microscopes effectively.
  21. Develop the following attitudinal objectives.
    1. Appreciate the importance of the ocean in the world ecosystem.
    2. Appreciate the impact the ocean has in our every day lives.
    3. Appreciate the impact of the ocean in the world economy.
    4. Appreciate and respect the diversity of the natural world.
    5. Appreciate the value of critical thinking.
    6. Appreciate that science is a way of looking at the order of the universe.
    7. Appreciate the value of scientific and technological developments and apply them to life situations.
    8. Respect the knowledge and skill required to safely enter the marine environment.
    9. Appreciate how much there is yet to learn about the marine worlds.
    10. Appreciate the environment and want to preserve it.
    11. Appreciate the variety of sciences and technologies that are required to adequately study the marine world.



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